What is Dexamethasone?

What is Dexamethasone?

Anonim

Generic Name: Dexamethasone Brand: Only generic. No brand.

Use

What is the drug for Dexamethasone for?

Dexamethasone is a drug that works to treat conditions such as arthritis, blood / hormone / immune system disorders, allergic reactions, certain skin and eye problems, respiratory problems, certain intestinal disorders, and certain cancers. This drug is also used as a test for adrenal gland disorders (Cushing's syndrome).

The drug dexamethasone is a corticosteroid (glucocorticoid) hormone. This drug reduces the body's natural defensive response and reduces symptoms such as swelling and allergic reactions.

This drug can also be used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy.

What are the rules for using Dexamethasone?

Take this medicine according to the directions given by your doctor. Eat with food or milk to prevent colic. Take this medicine with a full glass of water (240 milliliters) unless your doctor suggests otherwise. If you use drugs in liquid form, use a medicine measuring device. Don't use home spoons.

If you take this medicine once a day, use it in the morning before 09:00. If you take this medicine every day or on a schedule other than the daily schedule, mark your calendar with reminders.

The dosage and duration of treatment is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. Your doctor may try to reduce your dose slowly over time to minimize side effects.

Use this medication regularly to get its benefits. To help you remember, use it at the same time every day. It is important to continue taking this medicine even if you feel better. Follow the dosage schedule carefully, and take this medicine exactly as prescribed.

Do not stop taking this medicine without consulting your doctor. Some conditions can get worse when the use of this drug suddenly stops. Your dose may need to be gradually reduced. Inform your doctor if your condition does not improve or gets worse.

Follow the rules given by your doctor or pharmacist before starting treatment. If you have questions, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

How do you save Dexamethasone?

Dexamethasone is one drug that should be stored at room temperature. Keep away from direct light and damp places. Do not store in the bathroom. Don't freeze it. Other brands of this drug may have different storage rules. Observe the storage instructions on the product packaging or ask your pharmacist. Keep all medicines out of the reach of children and pets.

Do not flush medicine in the toilet or in the sewer unless instructed. Discard this product when it has expired or if it is no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company about how to safely dispose of your product.

Dose

The information provided is not a substitute for medical advice. ALWAYS consult a doctor or pharmacist before starting treatment.

What is the dose of Dexamethasone for adults?

To treat Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS), Croup, asthma, and anti-inflammation, the dose of dexamethasone is:

  • Oral, infusion, and injection in the form of sodium phosphate: 0.75-9 mg per day in divided doses every 6-12 hours.
  • Injections in the form of acetate: 8-16 mg, can be repeated every 1-3 weeks.
  • Injections in the form of acetate: 0.8-1.6 mg.
  • Inject into joints or soft tissue in the form of acetate: 4-16 mg, can be repeated every 1-3 weeks.

To treat cerebral edema, the dose of dexamethasone is:

  • The initial dose is 10 mg IV once, followed by 4 mg injections every 6 hours until the symptoms of cerebral edema subside. The dose can be reduced after 2-4 days and stopped slowly for 5-7 days.

To treat Cushing's syndrome, the dose of dexamethasone is:

  • Suppression test or diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome: 1 mg orally at 23:00. Blood plasma cortisol measurement at 8:00 the next morning. Or, give 0.5 mg orally every 6 hours for 48 hours (with 24-hour urine collection for 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion).

To treat nausea / vomiting due to chemotherapy, the dose of dexamethasone is:

  • Prophylaxis: 10 mg-20 mg orally or infusion, 15-30 minutes before treatment during the day of treatment.
  • For continuous infusion of chemotherapy: 10 mg orally or every 12 hours during the treatment day.
  • For mild emetogenic therapy: 4 mg orally, infusion or injection every 4-6 hours.
  • Delayed nausea and vomiting: 8 mg orally every 12 hours for 2 days then 4 mg every 12 hours for 2 days. Or, give 20 mg orally 1 hour before chemotherapy.

To treat shock, the dose of dexamethasone is:

  • Addisonian crisis / shock: 4-10 mg infusion as a single dose, repeat if necessary.
  • Unresponsive shock: 1-6 mg / kg infusion as a single dose or up to 40 mg for the initial dose followed by repeated doses every 2 to 6 hours during shock.

To treat multiple myeloma, the dose of dexamethasone is:

  • Oral and infusion: 40 mg / day, days 1-4, 9-12, and 17-20, repeated every 4 weeks (single use or as part of combination treatment).

To treat multiple sclerosis, the dose of dexamethasone is:

  • Oral: 30 mg / day for 1 week, followed by 4 to 12 mg / day for 1 month.

To treat adrenal insufficiency, the dose of dexamethasone is:

  • Physiological replacement: Oral, injection, infusion (must be given in the form of sodium phosphate): 0.03-0.15 mg / kg / day or 0.6-0.75 mg / m2 / day in divided doses every 6 to 12 hours

What is the dose of Dexamethasone for children?

Dose of dexamethasone for children with cerebral edema

  • Initial dose: 1-2 mg / kg once orally, infusion or injection.
  • Maintenance dose: 1-1.5 mg / kg / day, given in divided doses every 4-6 hours for 5 days then the dose is lowered slowly for 5 days, then stopped using.
  • Maximum dose: 16 mg / day.

Dose of dexamethasone for anti-inflammation in children

  • 0.08-0.3 mg / kg / day or 2.5-5 mg / m2 / day in divided doses every 6-12 hours.

Dose of dexamethasone to treat asthma in children

  • Exacerbation of asthma: Oral, infusion, injection: 0.6 mg / kg once (maximum dose: 16 mg)

In what dosage and dosage is Dexamethasone available?

Availability of dexamethasone dosage is:

  • Concentration, Oral: Dexamethasone Intensol: 1 mg / mL (30 mL)
  • Elixir, Oral: Baycadron: 0.5 mg / 5 mL (237 mL)
  • Generic: 0.5 mg / 5 mL (237 mL)
  • Solution, Oral: Generic: 0.5 mg / 5 mL (240 mL, 500 mL)
  • Solution, Injection, sodium phosphate: Generic: 4 mg / mL (1 mL, 5 mL, 30 mL) 10 mg / mL (1 mL, 10 mL)
  • Solution, Injection, sodium phosphate: Generic: 10 mg / mL (1 mL)
  • Tablet, Oral:
    • DexPak 10 Days: 1.5 mg
    • DexPak 13 Days: 1.5 mg
    • DexPak 6 Days: 1.5 mg
    • Generic: 0.5 mg, 0.75 mg, 1 mg, 1.5 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg, 6 mg.

Side effects

What side effects might occur due to Dexamethasone?

Some side effects that may occur from the use of this drug include:

  • Sleep problems (insomnia)
  • Mood swings
  • Pimples, dry skin, thinning skin, bruises or skin discoloration
  • Slow wound healing
  • Excessive sweating
  • Headache, dizziness, swirling sensation
  • Nausea, stomach ache, bloating
  • Muscle weakness or
  • Changes in the shape or location of body fat (especially in the arms, legs, face, neck, chest, and waist).

Not everyone experiences the following side effects. There may be some side effects not mentioned above. If you have concerns about certain side effects, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

Prevention & Warnings

What must be known before using Dexamethasone?

Before using dexamethasone,

  • Tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to dexamethasone, aspirin, tartrazine (yellow coloring in some processed foods and medicines), or other drugs
  • Tell your doctor and pharmacist about prescription drugs and non-prescription drugs that you use, especially anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin (Coumadin), arthritis medications, aspirin, cyclosporin (Neoral, Sandimmune), digoxin (Lanoxin), diuretics, ephedrine, estrogen (estrogen Premarin), ketoconazole (Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.
  • If you have a yeast infection (other than your skin), do not use dexamethasone without consulting your doctor
  • Tell your doctor if you have or have had liver, kidney, intestinal, or heart disease, diabetes, underactive thyroid gland, high blood pressure, mental disorders, myasthenia gravis, osteoporosis, eye infections, herpes, tuberculosis spasms (TB) ), or ulcer (wound)
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while taking dexamethasone, contact your doctor
  • If you have surgery, including dental surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about using dexamethasone
  • If you have a history of ulcers or use high-dose aspirin or other arthritis medications, limit consumption of alcoholic drinks when using this drug. Dexamethasone makes the stomach and intestines more susceptible to the irritating effects of alcohol, aspirin, and certain arthritis medications: this effect increases the risk of ulcers

Is Dexamethasone safe for pregnant or breastfeeding women?

There are no adequate studies conducted on pregnant women so the effects cannot be known with certainty. However, animal studies have shown the detrimental effects of using dexamethasone in pregnant animals, so dexamethasone is considered to be potentially risky for pregnant and nursing mothers.

Consider the benefits and risks that might be experienced before using this drug while breastfeeding.

Interaction

What medicines might interact with Dexamethasone?

Drug interactions can change the performance of your medication or increase the risk of serious side effects. Not all possible drug interactions are listed in this document. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription / nonprescription medicines and herbal products) and consult your doctor or pharmacist.

When you use this medicine, it is important for your doctor to know that you are taking the drugs listed below. The following drugs were chosen because they were considered to potentially have significant interactions with dexamethasone, but the list of drugs below does not cover all drugs that may interact with dexamethasone. Do not start, stop or change the dose of any drug without the doctor's approval.

Using this drug with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medicine or change some of the other drugs that you have used.

  • Artemether
  • Daclatasvir
  • Praziquantel
  • Rilpivirine
  • Rotavirus Vaccine, Live

Using this drug with one of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be needed in some cases. If both drugs are prescribed together, your doctor can change the dosage or frequency of use of one or both drugs.

  • Aldesleukin
  • Aripiprazole
  • Axitinib
  • Boceprevir
  • Bosutinib
  • Bupropion
  • Carbamazepine
  • Ceritinib
  • Clarithromycin
  • Clozapine
  • Cobicistat
  • Crizotinib
  • Dabrafenib
  • Darunavir
  • Dasatinib
  • Doxorubicin
  • Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome
  • Efavirenz
  • Eliglustat
  • Elvitegravir
  • Enzalutamide
  • Eslicarbazepine Acetate
  • Etravirine
  • Fosamprenavir
  • Hydrocodone
  • Idelalisib
  • Imatinib
  • Itraconazole
  • Ivabradine
  • Ixabepilone
  • Lapatinib
  • Mitotane
  • Nevirapine
  • Nifedipine
  • Nilotinib
  • Nimodipine
  • Piperaquine
  • Pixantrone
  • Primidone
  • Ritonavir
  • Rivaroxaban
  • Romidepsin
  • Siltuximab
  • Sunitinib
  • Telaprevir
  • Temsirolimus
  • Thalidomide
  • Ticagrelor
  • Topotecan
  • Vincristine Sulfate
  • Vincristine Sulfate Liposome
  • Vortioxetine

Using this drug with one of the following medicines can cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If the two drugs are prescribed together, your doctor can change the dosage or frequency of use of one or both drugs.

  • Alatrofloxacin
  • Alcuronium
  • Aminoglutethimide
  • Aprepitant
  • Aspirin
  • Atracurium
  • Balofloxacin
  • Caspofungin
  • Cinoxacin
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Clinafloxacin
  • Enoxacin
  • Fleroxacin
  • Fluindione
  • Flumequine
  • Fosaprepitant
  • Fosphenytoin
  • Gallamine
  • Gemifloxacin
  • Grepafloxacin
  • Hexafluorenium
  • Levofloxacin
  • Licorice
  • Lomefloxacin
  • Metocurine
  • Moxifloxacin
  • Netupitant
  • Norfloxacin
  • Ofloxacin
  • Ospemifene
  • Pancuronium
  • Pefloxacin
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenytoin
  • Prulifloxacin
  • Rifampin
  • Rifapentine
  • Rosoxacin
  • Rufloxacin
  • Saiboku-to
  • Sparfloxacin
  • Temafloxacin
  • Tosufloxacin
  • Trovafloxacin Mesylate
  • Vecuronium
  • Warfarin

Can food or alcohol interact with Dexamethasone?

Certain medicines should not be used when eating or when eating certain foods because drug interactions can occur. Consuming alcohol or tobacco with certain drugs can also cause interactions to occur. Discuss your use of drugs with food, alcohol, or tobacco with your health care provider.

What health conditions can interact with Dexamethasone?

Other health conditions that you have can affect the use of this drug. Always tell your doctor if you have other health problems, especially:

  • Cataract
  • Congenital heart failure
  • Cushing's syndrome (adrenal gland problems)
  • Diabetes
  • Eye infection
  • Fluid retention
  • Glaucoma
  • Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar)
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • Infection (for example, bacteria, viruses, fungi)
  • Mood changes, including depression
  • Miastenia gravis (severe muscle weakness)
  • Osteoporosis (weak bones)
  • Gastric ulcer, active or history
  • Personality change
  • Stomach problems or intestinal problems (for example, diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis)
  • Tuberculosis, inactive - Use with caution. Might make conditions worse
  • Fungal infections
  • Herpes simplex eye infections - Should not be used in patients with this condition

Overdose

What should I do in an emergency or overdose?

In cases of emergency or overdose, contact your local emergency services provider (119) or immediately to the nearest hospital emergency department.

What should I do if I miss a dose?

If you forget one dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. But when it is nearing the next dose, skip the missed dose and return to the usual dosage schedule. Don't double the dose to catch up with the remaining dose.

Source

MIMS. Dexamethasone. 2016. http://mims.com/Indonesia/Home/GatewaySubscription/?generic=Dexamethasone Accessed February 18th, 2017

Dexamethasone https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-1027-5021/dexamethasone-oral/dexamethasone-oral/details accessed on 10 October 2018

Dexamethasone https://www.rxlist.com/dexamethasone-drug/patient-images-side-effects.htm accessed on 10 October 2018

Reviewed: October 10, 2018 | Last Edited: October 10, 2018

Editor'S Choice