What is Amoxicillin?

What is Amoxicillin?

Anonim

Generic Name: Amoxicillin Brand: amoxicillin drug.

Use

What is the drug Amoxicillin used for?

Amoxicillin is a medicine for treating various kinds of bacterial infections. Amoxicillin is a class of antibiotics penicillin. This drug works to stop bacteria from multiplying and kill bacteria that cause infections in the body. These antibiotics must be obtained and consumed based on a doctor's prescription. Amoxilin cannot be bought freely.

There are several diseases that are often prescribed this antibiotic drug, including:

  • Acute bronchitis . Bronchitis is inflammation of the airways due to bacterial infections that cause slimy lungs.
  • ENT infections (ear, nose, and throat), such as sinuses, external ear infections (otitis externa), and middle ear infections (otitis media). Amoxilin can treat and prevent the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae bacteria which cause ear and nose infections.
  • Skin infection. Amoxilin is often prescribed to relieve eczema symptoms. Bacterial infections cause eczema-prone skin to itch and redness. However, this drug does not kill the bacteria that cause eczema. Prescription amoxilin is usually in the form of oral pills and ointments.
  • Urinary tract infections (UTI). UTIs occur when bacteria enter the urethra, bladder and kidneys. Generally, doctors will not immediately prescribe amoxilin antibiotics for UTI. Administration of drugs will depend on the severity of the symptoms and the type of bacteria that causes them.

In certain cases, this antibiotic drug can be combined with other drugs to treat heartburn due to H. pylori bacteria. These antibiotics are also sometimes prescribed to treat heart problems, maintain heart valve function after heart surgery, before dental medical procedures (such as tooth extractions), prevent heart infections, prevent chlamydia during pregnancy, and prevent bacterial infections in newborns.

These antibiotics only treat bacterial infections. This drug will not work to eradicate viral infections, such as colds and flu. Indiscriminate or unnecessary use of antibiotics can cause its effectiveness to decrease.

OTHER USES: This section contains the use of drugs that are not listed on a label that is approved by a health professional for drugs, but may be prescribed by your doctor. Use this medicine for the conditions listed in this section if it has only been prescribed by your doctor.

What are the rules for using amoxicillin?

Take this medicine with or without food as directed by your doctor, usually twice a day every 8-12 hours. It may also be prescribed three times a day, every 8 hours, depending on the doctor's direction. Dosage is based on medical conditions and response to treatment. Drink plenty of fluids when using this medicine unless your doctor suggests otherwise.

Take medicine with a glass of water. This liquid form of drug suspension can be mixed with other liquids such as formula milk, fruit juice, milk, or mineral water.

Make sure the liquid medicine bottle and drops are shaken first before being used to flatten the contents of the drug in it. Chewable tablets must be thoroughly chewed before swallowing.

It is important to follow the dose dosage and how to use the right medicine as recommended by your doctor or pharmacist. Antibiotics work well when the drug levels in your body are at a stable level. Therefore, use this medicine regularly. To help you remember the dosage, use it at the same time every day.

Even if the symptoms are cured, the drug must be finished thoroughly according to the dosage and the time period determined by the doctor to follow the course of treatment to the end. Then it's good to ask the doctor how long this antibiotic drug should be taken. Stopping, reducing, adding to, and / or continuing antibiotic treatment not according to doctor's advice will increase the risk of antibiotic resistance which causes the infection to recur more severely.

Follow the rules given by your doctor or pharmacist before starting treatment. If you have questions, consult your doctor or pharmacist. Tell your doctor if your condition does not improve or gets worse.

How to store Amoxicillin?

This drug is best stored at room temperature, away from direct light and damp places. Do not store in the bathroom. Don't freeze it. Other brands of this drug may have different storage rules. Observe the storage instructions on the product packaging or ask your pharmacist. Keep all medicines out of the reach of children and pets.

Do not flush medicine in the toilet or in the sewer unless instructed. Discard this product when it has expired or if it is no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company about how to safely dispose of your product.

Dose

The information provided is not a substitute for medical advice. ALWAYS consult a doctor or pharmacist before starting treatment.

What is the dose of amoxicillin for adults?

  • Actinomycosis: 500 mg orally 3 times a day or 875 mg orally twice a day for six months.
  • Anthrax prophylaxis: 500 mg orally every 8 hours.
  • Cutaneous bacillus anthracis: 500 mg orally three times a day.
  • Prophylactic bacterial endocarditis: 2 g orally is given one hour before the procedure.
  • Chlamydia: 500 mg orally 3 times a day for 7 days in pregnant patients as an alternative to erythromycin in macrolide-sensitive individuals.
  • Cystitis: 250-500 mg orally 3 times a day for 3-7 days; alternatively, 500-875 mg orally twice a day can be given.
  • Urinary tract infections: 250-500 mg orally 3 times a day for 3-7 days. Alternatively, 500-875 mg orally twice a day can be given.
  • Helicobacter pylori infection: 1 g orally 2-3 times a day for 14 days.
  • Arthritis due to complications of Lyme disease: 500 mg orally 3 times a day for 14-30 days.
  • Carditis due to complications of Lyme disease: 500 mg orally 3 times a day for 14-30 days.
  • Erythema chronicum migrans due to complications of Lyme disease: 500 mg orally 3 times a day for 14-30 days.
  • Neurological problems due to complications of Lyme disease: 500 mg orally 3 times a day for 14-30 days.
  • Otitis media: 250-500 mg orally 3 times a day for 10-14 days; alternatively, 500-875 mg orally twice a day can be given.
  • Pneumonia: 500 mg orally 3 times a day or 875 mg orally twice a day, can be given for 7-10 days if pneumococcal pneumonia is suspected.
  • Sinusitis: 250-500 mg orally 3 times a day for 10-14 days; alternatively, 500-875 mg orally twice a day can be given.
  • Skin infections or soft tissue infections: 250-500 mg orally 3 times a day for 7-10 days; alternatively, 500-875 mg orally twice a day can be given.
  • Upper respiratory tract infections (ARI): 250-500 mg orally 3 times a day for 7-10 days; alternatively, 500-875 mg orally twice a day can be given.
  • Bronchitis: 250-500 mg orally 3 times a day for 7-10 days; alternatively, 500-875 mg orally twice a day can be given.
  • Inflammation of the tonsils (tonsillitis) and inflammation of the throat (pharyngitis)
    • Immediate-release: 250-500 mg orally 3 times a day for 7-10 days; alternatively, 500-875 mg orally twice a day can be given.
    • Extended-release: 775 mg orally once a day within 1 hour after eating for 10 days; for secondary Streptococcus pyogenes infections.
  • Common bacterial infections: 250-500 mg orally 3 times a day for 7-21 days; alternatively, 500-875 mg orally twice a day can be given.

What is the dose of amoxicillin for children?

  • Prophylactic bacterial endocarditis: 50 mg / kg orally as a single dose 1 hour before the procedure.
  • Anthrax prophylaxis: 80 mg / kg / day divided in the same dose given orally every 8 hours. Maximum dose: 500 mg / dose.
  • Cutaneous Bacillus Anthracis: Treatment for cases of cutaneous Bacillus anthracis infection: 80 mg / kg / day divided in the same dose given orally every 8 hours. Maximum dose: 500 mg / dose.
  • Otitis Media:
    • Age 4 weeks-3 months: 20-30 mg / kg / day in divided doses every 12 hours.
    • Age 4 months-12 years: 20-50 mg / kg / day in divided doses every 8-12 hours.
    • Acute otitis media due to highly resistant Streptococcus pneumonia may need a dose of 80-90 mg / kg / day orally divided into 2 equal doses in 12 hours.
  • Skin infections or soft tissue infections:
    • Age 4 weeks-3 months: 20-30 mg / kg / day in divided doses every 12 hours.
    • Age 4 months-12 years: 20-50 mg / kg / day in divided doses every 8-12 hours.
  • Urinary tract infection
    • Age 4 weeks-3 months: 20-30 mg / kg / day in divided doses every 12 hours.
    • Age 4 months-12 years: 20-50 mg / kg / day in divided doses every 8-12 hours.
  • Pneumonia: 40-50 mg / kg / day orally in divided doses every 8 hours.
  • Inflammation of the tonsils (tonsillitis) and inflammation of the throat (pharyngitis)
    • Age 4 weeks-3 months: 20-30 mg / kg / day in divided doses every 12 hours.
    • Age 4 months-12 years: 20-50 mg / kg / day in divided doses every 8-12 hours.
    • 12 years of age or older
      • Immediate-release: 250-500 mg orally 3 times a day for 7-10 days; alternatively, 500-875 mg orally twice a day can be given.
      • Extended-release: 775 mg orally once a day within 1 hour after eating for 10 days; for secondary S pyogenes infection.

In what dosages and preparations is Amoxicillin available?

Capsules, Oral: 250 mg, 500 mg.

This drug is also available in swallowed tablets, chewable tablets, suspension drugs (liquid), or drops for children.

Side effects

What amoxicillin side effects might occur?

Amoxicillin can cause mild allergic reactions such as fever, sore throat, and red itchy skin (especially on the face or upper body). Mild allergic reactions usually do not require special treatment and are sufficiently monitored so they don't get worse.

If symptoms interfere, your doctor will usually give antihistamines and corticosteroids such as hydrocortisone. On the other hand, amoxicillin can also cause severe allergic reactions such as facial, lip and swollen tongue, nausea, vomiting, heavy sweating, shortness of breath, or feeling like you are going to faint.

Seek immediate emergency medical help if you or your family have a severe allergic reaction. Keep in mind, allergic symptoms may occur late. Drug allergic reactions can appear for hours or even days after you spend the dose.

In addition, immediately see a doctor or the nearest hospital if you experience serious side effects such as:

  • White patches or sores in your mouth or lips.
  • Fever, confusion or weakness, swollen lymph nodes, rashes or itching, joint pain
  • Pale or yellowing skin, yellowing eyes.
  • Urine is dark and murky. Amoxicillin can also cause the formation of crystals in the urine that cause pain when urinating. To prevent this, consume large amounts of water while you are on medication.
  • Tingling, numbness, pain, severe muscle weakness.
  • Easy bruising, unusual bleeding (from the nose, mouth, vagina or rectum).
  • Purple or red spots under your skin.
  • Changes in blood, kidney function, or liver function.

Minor and more common amoxicillin side effects can include:

  • Diarrhea. To prevent this, you can take medicine after eating. Avoid foods that can interfere with digestion, such as dairy products or high-fiber foods. If you have diarrhea, don't forget to drink lots of water to avoid dehydration. Probiotic supplements can also usually help treat diarrhea caused by antibiotics.
  • Stomach ache, nausea. Therefore, eat first before taking this medicine. If you experience abdominal pain that is so severe that you vomit and bleed CHAPTER, consult a doctor immediately.
  • Headache and dizziness. Drink lots of water and consume amoxilin after eating to prevent it. Do not forget to get enough rest during treatment. Taking headache medicine can also ease the pain. Regular exercise, adequate sleep, and avoiding stress can also help. Avoid driving after taking this medicine.
  • Trouble sleeping. Amoxicillin insomnia can be difficult to start sleeping, wake up too quickly, or even fly more often at night.
  • Itchy vagina or vaginal discharge
  • Swollen, black or "hairy" tongue

Not everyone experiences these side effects. There may be some side effects not mentioned above. If you have concerns about certain side effects, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

Prevention & Warnings

What must be known before using amoxicillin?

Before using amoxicillin, tell your doctor and pharmacist if you:

  • Allergy to amoxicillin, penicillin, cefalosporin, or other drugs (for example, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cephalexin, Ceftin┬«, or Keflex┬«).
  • Are currently using prescription drugs and nonprescription drugs, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products that you use, or will use. Be sure to mention: chloramphenicol (Chlormycetin), other antibiotics, and probenecid (Benemid). Your doctor may need to change the dose of your medicine or monitor you carefully for side effects
  • Have or have had kidney disease, allergies, asthma, fever, hives, or phenylketonuria
  • Are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while using amoxicillin, contact your doctor

Is amoxicillin safe for pregnant and breastfeeding women?

There is no adequate research on the risks of using this drug in pregnant or nursing women. Always consult your doctor to consider the potential benefits and risks before using this medicine. This drug is included in the risk of pregnancy category B (not at risk in some studies) according to the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA).

However, amoxilin drug substances can be absorbed into breast milk and endanger infants who are breastfeeding. Let your doctor know if you are breastfeeding.

Interaction

What drugs should not be taken with amoxicillin?

Drug interactions can change the way drugs work and work or increase the risk of serious side effects. Interaction can also increase the risk of poisoning because the body does not work optimally removing the remaining drug substances.

Amoxilin can affect the results of certain diagnostic tests, such as urine glucose tests, which lead to false positive results.

Amoxilin is generally prescribed and combined with drugs such as clarithromycin and lansoprazole. But with these drugs, interactions can occur.

  • Acenocoumarol
  • Acrivastine
  • Allopurinol
  • Bupropion
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Chlortetracycline
  • Demeclocycline
  • Doxycycline
  • Khat
  • Lymecycline
  • Macrolide
  • Meclocycline
  • Methacycline
  • Methotrexate
  • Minocycline
  • Oxytetracycline
  • Probenecid
  • Rolitetracycline
  • Sulfonamide
  • Tetracycline
  • Venlafaxine
  • Warfarin

Not all possible drug interactions are listed in this document. So, keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription / nonprescription medicines and herbal products) and consult your doctor or pharmacist. Do not start, stop or change the dose of any drug without the doctor's approval.

What foods and drinks should not be consumed when using amoxicillin?

Certain medicines should not be used when eating or when eating certain foods because drug interactions can occur.

Generally, amoxicillin should not be taken together with:

1. Sour foods and drinks

Highly acidic foods such as carbonated drinks, orange juice, lemon juice, chocolate, and tomato-based products (tomato sauce) should be avoided when taking antibiotics.

Foods and drinks that taste acidic can reduce the body's ability to absorb drugs to the maximum.

2. Dairy-based products, except yogurt

Dairy-based food and beverage products can inhibit drug absorption due to their calcium content. According to Katrina Seidman of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, calcium and iron can affect your body's ability to absorb quinolones, a type of antibiotic.

If you have just taken a calcium supplement, an iron supplement, or you have a high-mineral meal, wait about three hours before taking antibiotics.

However, yogurt that is also made from milk is not included to be avoided. Yogurt contains good bacteria that can help the immune system more efficiently fight bad bacterial infections.

3. High-fiber foods

High-fiber foods, such as fresh vegetables and fruit, as well as nuts and seeds, can slow down the process of absorption of drugs.

4. Alcohol

Consuming alcohol or tobacco with certain drugs can also cause interactions to occur. Discuss your use of drugs with food, alcohol, or tobacco with your health care provider.

What health conditions should avoid amoxicillin?

Other health problems in your body can affect the use of this drug. Let your doctor know if you have other health problems, such as:

  • Antibiotic drug allergy. Tell your doctor to prescribe other medicines to prevent allergic reactions.
  • Mononucleosis (viral infection) - Should not be used in patients with this condition.
  • Severe kidney disease. People with kidney disease or other kidney problems are advised not to consume amoxilin. Although kidney damage is very rarely caused by consumption of amoxilin, if this happens it can be a serious problem. If you take this medicine, make sure to take it according to the dose given by your doctor and don't forget to drink lots of water.
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU) - chewable tablets contain phenylalanine, which can make this condition worse.

Overdose

What are the symptoms of amoxicillin overdose and what are the effects?

Amoxilin overdose cases are rare, but still possible. Be aware of the following symptoms of an antibiotic overdose of amoxicillin:

  • Stomach ache
  • Diarrhea

What should I do in an emergency or overdose?

In case of emergency or overdose, contact your local emergency services provider (118/119) or immediately to the nearest hospital emergency department.

What should I do if I miss a dose?

If you forget one dose of the drug Amoxicillin, take it as soon as possible. But when it is nearing the next dose, skip the missed dose and return to the usual dosage schedule. Do not double the dose.

Source

MIMS. Amoxicillin. 2016. http://mims.com/Indonesia/Home/GatewaySubscription/?generic=Amoxicillin Accessed February 18th, 2017

Reviewed: April 10, 2019 | Last Edited: April 10, 2019

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